Lekcija 1 – vremena kojima se izražava sadašnjost

U ovoj lekciji ponavljamo vremena kojima se izražava sadašnjost. Prepoznajte razlike između četiri različita vremena te vježbajte njihovo korištenje. Lekcija obrađuje temu na srednjoj i višoj razini.

In this lesson we review present tenses. Recognise the differences between four different tenses and practice when to use each one. The topis covered in the lesson is at intermediate / upper-intermediate level.

Zadatak 1 / Task 1

U engleskom jeziku postoje četiri sadašnja vremena.
There are 4 present tenses in English:

  1. Present simple (I have a dog.): _________________
  2. Present continuous (progressive) (She is watching TV): _______________
  3. Present perfect simple (I have had this car for 5 years): _______________
  4. Present perfect continuous (progressive) (I have been living here for 2 years): ________________

Pridružite sljedeće definicije vremenima navedenima iznad. Za pojedino vrijeme moguće je više definicija.
Match the following definitions with the tenses above. More than one definition can be used for one and the same tense:

  1. An activity which happened (or didn’t happen) in the past but has some results in the present.
  2. Expression of present habits, repeated actions in the present.
  3. An activity around the moment of speaking (happening now).
  4. An activity which happened in the past and has a negative effect on somebody or something in the present (the results of this activity can be noticed).
  5. An activity which started in the past and still lasts in the present (usually with since or for).
  6. An activity which has a temporary effect in the present.
  7. An activity which happens very often and may annoy a person (used with always).
  8. And activity which happened or didn’t happen in the past up to the moment of talking about the activity in the present, and it is possible that this activity may happen in the future.
  9. With just (only in the British English).
  10. Expressions of facts.

Zadatak 2 / Task 2

U prazna mjesta unesite ispravni oblik sadašnjeg vremena glagola u zagradama.
Write the right present tense form in the following sentences using the verbs in brackets:

  1. I ____________________ (go) to work by car every day but this week since my car is broken I _______________________ (go) by bus.
  2. She _____________ (be) on diet for a month and she __________________(not eat) chocolate.
  3. You ___________________________ (repair) the car in your new trousers again! Look at these dirty oily spots!
  4. They ________________________ (know) each other for many years.
  5. We can’t go to the restaurant because Ana ______________________(not book) a table!
  6. I can’t talk to you now because I ______________________(have) dinner with my family.
  7. I __________________ (have) this car for 10 years.
  8. He ____________never _____________ (play) tennis in his life.
  9. She _____________________(play) tennis every second day.
  10. He _____________always_______________(be) impossible when he stays with his grandpas.
  11. I _________________________ (not try) it yet.
  12. I ______________just _______________ (see) him on the street.
  13. They _______________________ (live) in a very small house in the suburbs.

Odgovori na Zadatak 1 / Answers to Task 1:

  1. Present simple: b, j
  2. Present continuous: c, f, g
  3. Present perfect simple: a, h, i
  4. Present perfect continuous: d, e*

* za glagole stanja (to be za ‘biti’, to know, to want, to have za posjedovanje itd.) koristimo jednostavan oblik present perfecta (npr. I have been here for 20 minutes).
* for non-action verbs (to be for ‘biti’, to know, to want, to have for possession etc.) we use the simple form of the present perfect (e.g. I have been here for 20 minutes).

Odgovori na Zadatak 2 / Answers to Task 2:

  1. go (see definition b above), am (‘m) going (see definition f above)
  2. has (‘s) been (see definition e), isn’t eating (see definition f above)
  3. have (‘ve) been repairing (see definition d above)
  4. have (‘ve) known (see definition e)
  5. hasn’t booked (see definition a)
  6. am (‘m) having (see definition c)
  7. have (‘ve) had (see definition e)
  8. has (‘s) played (see definition h)
  9. plays (see definition b)
  10. is (‘s) always being (see definition g – here to be means to behave)
  11. haven’t tried (see definition h)
  12. have (‘ve) just seen (see definition i)
  13. live (see definition j)

ZAPAMTITE / REMEMBER!

Izbjegnite česte greške / Avoid common mistakes:

Present perfect (I have had this car for 5 years) je sadašnje vrijeme koje koristite kada govorite o nečemu što je počelo u prošlosti ali još uvijek traje u sadašnjosti. Ne koristite present simple (I have a car) kako bi ste govorili o prošlosti - I have this car for 5 years je pogrešno.

Present perfect tense (I have had this car for 5 years) is a present tense that you use when you are making reference to something that started in the past but still lasts in the present. Don’t use present simple tense (I have a car) to refer to the past, e.g. I have this car for 5 years is incorrect.

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